Summary of “Breaking India” – Rajiv Malhotra

First part of the excellent book by Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan – Breaking India.

1

Indian civilisation is facing lot of breaking-India forces that stokes the  built-in tendencies to fragment. The forces include Islamic, Communist and Evangelical church. The built-in tendencies to fragment include:

  • India’s large poor
  • Social injustice some originated within Indian society while others bred by foreign influence
  • Poor infrastructure and access to better living standards to large group
  • Separatist in Kashmir, North-east, Maoist, Dravidian movement in TN
  • Unstable neighbouring countries

2

The British have committed many horrible acts by justifying using atrocity literature. Some of them:

  • Criminal Tribes Act 1871 made it lawful to perform genocide against a list of Indian tribes mostly who were fighting against British
  • Dowry extortions became common when women; tradition property rights were taken away by the British
  • Exacerbation of conflicts between jatis using atrocity literature
  • Use of atrocities against workers to destroy many industries like textiles and steel where India had lead. Flow of profit during 1757 and 1812 from India to Britain about 500-1000 million pounds (1 trillion dollars in todays value).

3

Once the European Indologist ‘discovered’ the treasure of Indian civilisation including Sanskrit and its rich works an attempt was made to create a connection with this superior civilisation. The first step was to manufacture an Aryan race as a precursor to Greek and Roamn civilisation. The rigid framework of Judeo-Christian monotheism and challenges from modern period also played a part. Some scholars, realising the superiority of Indian civilisation, even tried to disengage Christianity from its Judaism roots and poetry it as superior to Aryan polytheism (despite its monotheistic commonality with Judaism) with claim that it is the least monotheistic of the Abrahamic religions.

The need for German to create an imaginative pure Aryan look line to compete with other neighbouring nations and their cultural heritage led to holocaust and world war. This Aryan race theory was dumped by the Europeans after the war but held high by breaking-India forces for their application in India to drive the Aryan-Dravidian fault line, again imaginary. Some western scholars like Sheldon Pollock also put blame on Hinduism for the Nazi growth and genocide committed. Sadly the government of India under UPA honoured such charlatans with Padma Shri in 2010.

4

European scholars have always tried to use Bible (Noah’s curse on Ham) to justify slavery of African people. An estimated twenty million Africans were captured and enslaved between 1517 and 1840 that is no less than holocaust. Such race theories also led to genocide of various African tribes, biggest being massacre or Tutsi by Hutu tribes in Rwanda fuelled by race superiority framework propagated by the Church. In India the same theories was used to justify the British colonialism as a means of civilising mission (albeit from an inferior British civilisation).

In the attempt to map Indian civilisation in to this Biblical framework there were many obstacles which was made to force-fit or reject if not possible. An example is the rejection of the yuga time scale of hindus (closer to contemporary scientific estimate of age of universe) compared to Biblical time scale of 4004 BCE for creation of world and 2349 BCE for Noah flood.

5

Guided by close-racist like Max Muller, open racist list Risley, despite lack of any Sanskrit knowledge, came to ridiculous theories of sati-varna as race. The British government naturally lapped up such bogus theories that made their life easier to extend colonisation, and even gave knighthood to him for his services. Dr. Ambedkar thrashed this race theory as basis for caste after examining the Nasal Index data of various caste that was basis of this junk theory.

6

Colonial administrator and evangelist policy of ‘divide and rule’ led to invention of an entire race called ‘Dravidians’. A missionary Bishop Robert Caldwell proposed this bunkum that Dravidians were widespread in India before Aryan invasion displaced them towards South India. The agenda was to free the Dravidian mind from the Aryan influence so that Christian evangelisation would reap the souls of Dravidians.

Many other bogus theories were also floated. This included claims that Tamil and Telugu was related with Hebrew and ancient Arabic no relation with Sanskrit. Strangely while propagating this bogus theory they got away by claiming that Dravidian were inferior to Aryans. Other claims include Thomas preaching Christianity in South India although there is no evidence of any presence and even Pope Benedict XVI stated that the Saint never crossed beyond west Asia. Strange as it may be colonisers like Caldwell are protected as saviours of Tamil people and his statue is decorating Marina beach as a major landmark along with other missionary G.U. Pope.

Three leading group of Tamil literature – Thirukural, Saiva Sidhartha and Tamil Devotional literature were in way of subsuming in to the Christian Evangelical framework. Even though earlier attempt was to attribute Tirukural to Jain influence (since it is less harmful for evangelical activities) in recent times evangelical groups claim Christian influence engethough it predates origin of Christianity and even the bogus theory of Thomas preaching in India does not remove that ambiguity. Siva Sidhartha, although has strong vedic reference, G.U.Pope and other evangelist propagated that this was diluted form of Christianity to aid people reach the so called undiluted form. All the Devotional literature although had pan-Indian nature with reference to hinduism and locations like himalayas, evangelist fabricated stories to suit their agenda.

If one were to examine the writings of Tirukural, both thesis of Jain and Christian origin can be debunked. In the third book, 250 couplets are devoted to Kama Purushartha, that stands diametrically opposite to the protestant puritanism professed by missionaries like Pope. there are many couplets that goes against Jain concepts of ahimsa like agriculture and cultivation where animals are harmed or punishment for crimes prescribed by King. Indra and other Hindu gods are frequently referred. One can only conclude that TIrukural is within the framework of Hindu dharma.

7

The evangelical race theories in Sri Lanka has resulted in civil war between Sinhalese and Tamil people with former identifying with Aryan-Buddhist identity and latter to Dravidian identity. Another fantasy that was introduced and surprisingly affirmed by the Tamil Nadu state government was the fictional continent of Lemur, supposed to have existed between African and India before sinking (like Atlantis) some 50,000 years ago. The Dravidians trace their origin with linkage to African continent to this imaginary continent. The modern Afro-Dravidian movement sprang up drawing on this myth.

In Sri Lanka despite evidence of affinity between Sinhalese and Tamil such attempts were discredited by colonist and evangelical groups and alternate opponent-race theory was promoted. Buddhist leaders diluted their faith and removed many elements to gain respect in front of westerners and thereby the similarity with Shaivaite Tamils was lost causing more harm and animosity. Some 80,000 people got killed and about million people displaced from their home in this civl war. Rwanda is another country where such experiment by evangelist have killed more people. India is in risk of encountering such disaster.

8

The digestion of hinduism into fictional ‘Dravidian’ Christianity started with the myth of St. Thomas preaching in South India and claiming Christian influence in Tamil literature. This myth died down when neither any historical trace supported this story nor any trace of Christian influence in ancient Tamil literature was found. A new found revival in digging up this myth started n 1970s with a zealot, M.Deivanayagam who began twisting Tamil classical texts by superimposing them on Christian meaning. The Dravidian identity political groups and controlled organisation including the Madras University promoted this spurious theories. A crackpot theory that Thiruvalluvar met St Thomas and Thirukural has Christain influence would have found in trash bin but for some pro-Dravidian DMK party support whose chief minister gave a laudatory preface to the junk book Was Thiruvalluvar a Christian?

The Church is also famous for creating hoaxes to support such theories. One of the famous one being Archbishop Arulappa’s history project on creating earlier record of Christianity in India which was publicly exposed in court. In Nilakkal issue near Sabarimala a cross supposedly of St.Thomas was buried and ‘mysteriously’ found. When Hindu opposition insisted on independent research by Archaeological Survey of India, the perpetrators of the fraud preferred to retreat.

In the haste to claim St Thomas legacy the Roman Catholic Church opened a museum which again is full of inconsistent images and sculptures. A figure of supposed Mylapore King is described as Gondophares, the first Indo-Parthan king who ruled over Kabul valley located thousand miles away. His reign is also in the first century BCE. The sculpture also shows a book with St Thomas but conveniently forgets that New Testament was compiled in the fourth century CE. A painting claimed to have been brought by Thomas clearly belongs to Italian renaissance period. The killing of Thomas by brahmins is a recent legend not known to Marco Polo, created obviously for evangelical success. Interesting in all this according to Vatican the remains of the Apostle was transferred to Odessa in Mesopotamia.

Interestingly archaeological studies by the Government of India confirm that the Portuguese, the zealot temple destroying missionaries, built the church on the ruins of a Hindu temple, most likely the Kapaleeswara Temple. These independent reports are downplayed and bogus propaganda is played out even in school textbooks in Tamil Nadu.

In the continuing theme of appropriation and creating a false divide between North and South India by the Aryan-Dravidian conflict, these evangelical supported organisations fantastic claims lead to further heights. Siva and Nataraja, with lot of evidence to contrary, are declared ‘Dravidian’. The Siva artefacts in Indus Valley civilisation, his abode of Mount Kailash in Tibet, association with river Ganga, Amarnath caves, Rudra in Rig Veda and lot of Saivaite sites in central Asia are no relevance to this bogus theorist. The Skanda-Murugan is also mapped to Christian framework albeit with lot of distortions.

Robert de Nobili, a notorious Jesuit who masqueraded as a Brahmin, committed a fraud of creating a ‘Fifth Veda’ disguising the Christian teaching and claiming it as pure. Like most frauds it was was also proved to be one, written by a missionary at Masulipatam and still archived as Exhibit No. 452 in Nouvelles Acquisitions Francaises. Taking cue from this failure, the missionaries in the three southern districts of Tamil Nadu refer to everything Christian as Vedic – Vetham (Christianity), Vetha-koil (church), Vetha-puthakam (Bible). Ignorant Hindus repeat such references.

The Christenisation of Hindu popular culture is continuously attempted and stretched. In the tenth day after Navaratri called Vijayadasami (Dussehra in North India) Hindus in South India initiates children in to literacy. A parallel function was conducted in 2008 by the church to imitate this in a christian context. Other appropriation include Vijayadashami Saraswati and Lakshmi replaced with Christian saints Paul and Sebastian, Maha Shivaratri frames as Messiah Night.

India alone has a concept of a God who dances and dance is  closely linked with Hinduism. Christian missionaries and supported by colonist attacked the devadasi system to destroy this art. Fortunately luminaries like Rukmini Devi Arundale (1904-86) and Kalakshetra institution (1936) revived this dance and now is acclaimed throughout the world. Once the dance form became popular, the missionaries changed tact and proceeded process of digestion. This starts with learning the dance form and then introduce the Christian mudras to the form. This is similar to Christian Yoga and Jewish Yoga by western practitioners.

Institutions like Kalai Kaveri College of Fine Arts, Kalairani Natya Saalai, Maryland, USA are blatant about Christianising the Bharata Natyam. This is despite the fact that Bible has two bad ‘sinful’ reference to dance. In recent time Kalakshetra was captured by Christian evangelist led by Leela Samson as director. Her attempts at removing Hindu association includes denying participation in Art of Living program, removing idols of gods from campus, stoppage of prayer to deity, removal of emblem of siva from student certificate, attack on hinduism like explaining Gita Govinda in denigrating tones, all contrary to the founder’s vision (Thankfully Leela Samson is now removed from institute and facing criminal charges of embezzlement).

9

The crackpot Deivlnayagam did not stop with his outrageous theories listed above. He even claims that Sanskrit belongs to 150 CE and that Thomas Christians created this language. The level one needs to go down to distort it to Christian framework is only because, unfortunately, Christianity is very recent religion is not lost in readers mind. In the 2005 conference organised by the three evangelical groups, Institute of Asian Studies, Dravidian Spiritual Movement (founded by Deivlnayagam) and New York Christian Tamil Temple even more fantastical claims were made to appropriate not only Hinduism but also Buddhism and Jainism. Their supporters include Senator Hillary Clinton, who is a well known evangelist supporter.

There were more lunatics thrashing out junk theories as studies like Professor Hepzibah Jesudan who thinks Cilapathikaram or Kampan’s Iramavatharam to be Christian in outlook. It even shocked secular-minded Tamil intellectuals such as Jeymohan, a prominent Tamil Marxist and Gandhian writer. Even bridal mysticism with roots in Hinduism like mystic poets Andal considering herself as bride of Vishnu were not left in this scheme of distorting to fit in to Christian roots. Institute of Asian Studies is the favourite pace to publish such junk.

More lunatics joined in this bandwagon. Prof. M.M. Ninan, brother of former governor of Nagaland came up with theory that Hinduism as ‘heresy of the Thomas Christianity in India’. Marvin Olasky, an advisor to President George W. Bush introduces Hinduism origin to Christianity planted by Thomas. Many hindus, including spiritual leaders, in their naivety, welcome the cross-mapping of Hinduism on to Christian framework ignoring the strategy behind the evangelical organisation for conversion and creating a non-Hindu and non-Indian ethnic identity for Tamils.

A major handicap Christianity faced in the fight against Hinduism was the lack of feminine divinity. De-coupling Shakti from hinduism then became a major task. Insane assertions that Kali came from European Alps were proposed by lunatics like Alf Hiltebeitel. A Catholic priest who behaved like Hindu monk in dressing, to fill the unsuspecting Hindus on the evangelical strategy to convert, proposed separating Tantra from Hinduism. The closest the evangelist would get in having a feminine divinity was to propose that the holy ghost was feminine.

A International Conference on the Religion of Tamils was organised in 2008 by the Catholic diocese of Chennai and Deivlnayagam’s World Tamils Spiritual Awareness Movement – a conference for and by evangelist. The only purpose was to churn out earlier trash from Institute of Asian Studies or its updated versions of Christian origin in everything but with no evidence. With no evidence, claims like Tamil as ‘World’s first race’, World’s first religion’ were propagated. If Dugald Stewart (1753-1828) claim that contact with Alexander resulted in invention of Sanskrit, the pre-Christian origin was given a new spin and the origin then became post-Christainty to coming of St Thomas. Deivanayagam’s claim that Tamil grammar showed proximity to Christian theology was rebutted as bias by veteran Tamil scholar, Auvai Natarajan. His unit-semtism was displayed when he claimed that Jews suffered holocaust because they did not accept Jesus.

All the bogus theories of Deivlnayagam-Devakala (father-dauther) were thrashed by archaeological evidences. Some of them are:

  • Siva ‘tri-murti’ is familiar to Indus people and to modern Hindus
  • Earlier Sanskrit inscriptions appear in epigraphic use in first century BCE at Ayodhya, Ghosundi and Hathibada stone inscriptions
  • Sivalingas with multiple faces have been unearthed belonging to second century BCE
  • Indic relegion, that antedates Christian era speaks of liberation after death and give a code of conduct to live by, as clearly stated by inscription in the Garuda erected by Indo-Greek ambassador to the Sunga king in 110 BCE
  • Sacrificial as well as non-sacrificaila worship have co-existed in Hinduism since antiquity and sacrifice did not necessarily require blood
  • Christian notion of hell, like those of angels and of the Devil, may derive more from the ancient Zoroastrian traditions than from scant Biblical reference

The discovery of Gospel of Thomas in a Coptic papyrus dated between 60 and 120 CE attributes influence of Eastern mysticism – Hinduism and Buddhism on early Christianity. This was detrimental to the institution power of the church if it empowers individuals seeker’s direct sadhana and hence Gnosticism was ruthless destroyed by the church. This history was downplayed and reverse influence was claimed by creating the myth of St Thomas preaching in India.

The leading Saiva Siddhanta experts condemned the European scholar’s idea of Dravidian separatist identity built in opposition to Vedas. All obvious references and ideas of Siva and harmony with Vedic framework are distorted to fit in to bogus Dravidian religion and Christian framework for pathway to digestion.

10

The centre of racist Indologist have shifted from Europe to United States after second world war. The three leading US universities are promoter of Breaking India forces. The Yale university project of Dravidian Etymological Dictionary boosted the Dravidian identity politics and fostered linguistic secessionism. Harvard focus shifts from Dravidian to Munda as ‘original natives’ and creating of ever smaller group identities leading up to Maoist militancy region in central Indian states. Berkeley is focussing on creating exaggerated difference between Tamil and rest of Indian literature while unifying elements are downplayed. This leads to secessionist movements and are openly supported. Proselytisers support these movements and like evangelical Christianity to this mix.

Sometimes later recantation by authors with tall claims are not heeded and the previous bogus theories start having a life of its own sustained by other political opportunist. The Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, compiled by Murray Barnson Emeneau and Thomas Burrow claimed that Dravidian languages were older than Sanskrit and was a landmark in separatist Dravidian ideology. Thirty years after publication Emeneau backtracked that their analysis were mere suggestions and an ‘act of faith’ and not provable – meaning trash. Separatist like C.N.Annadurai, founder of DMK, were supported by covertly supported by United States as a ploy to counteract Union Govt. leaning toward Soviet Union during cold war. T.N Seshan in his biography cites this.

Harvard SARVA project is aimed at superseding the Dravidian fault-line with Sanskrit with creation of even smaller fragments. NGO’s are provided with intellectual fodder with claims of separatist histories and identities. Berkeley has promoted Tamil separatism in India and SriLanka by hiring George L Hart for Tamil chair, the person known for Dravidianist propaganda.

11

The western forces work on different levels in India. The left-wing academicians of India collaborate with right-wing forces of the West – foundations, Christian churches, think-tanks, NGO – an unusual combination that is seen only when dealing with common enemy outside their country, in this case hinduism. While each have different agenda, taken together, they have the effect of dividing, destabilising and weakening India, while at the same time demonising, distorting and/or co-opting its culture. The key players are:

  • Government – Western governments are major propounders of their civilisation superiority and work with various organisations including evangelicals to further the cause of Christian missionary activity. For example, the US government uses USAID to channel funds through evangelical organisations such as World Vision
  • Funding Agencies –

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